## A Realistic Camera Model for Computer Graphics

Craig Kolb, Don Mitchell, and Pat Hanrahan
Computer Graphics
(Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '95), ACM SIGGRAPH, 1995, pp. 317-324

### Abstract

Most recent rendering research has concentrated on
two subproblems: modeling the reflection of light from materials,
and calculating the direct and indirect illumination from light sources and
other surfaces. Another key component of a rendering
system is the camera model. Unfortunately, current camera
models are not geometrically or radiometrically correct
and thus are not sufficient for synthesizing images from
physically-based rendering programs.
In this paper we describe a physically-based camera
model for computer graphics. More precisely, a physically-based
camera model accurately computes the irradiance on the film given the
incoming radiance from the scene. In our model a camera is described
as a lens system and film backplane. The lens system consists of
a sequence of simple lens elements, stops and apertures.
The camera simulation module computes the irradiance
on the backplane from the scene radiances using
distributed ray tracing. This is accomplished by
a detailed simulation of the geometry of ray paths through
the lens system, and by sampling the lens system such
that the radiometry is computed accurately and efficiently.
Because even the most complicated lenses have a relatively
small number of elements, the simulation only
increases the total rendering time slightly.

### Additional information

PostScript version of paper, with low-res color figures
(5.5MB).
High-resolution color figures:

Figure 8 (671KB)
Figure 9 (615KB)

Figure 10 (194KB)
Figure 12 (581KB)

Last update: 18 September 1995
cek@graphics.stanford.edu