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Something that helped me keep everything straight in my mind is to compute everything in terms of power:

Radiant intensity: power / solid angle

Radiance: power / (solid angle and area)

Radiosity: power / area


When do we use radiant exitance over surfance radiance and vice versa?


To be clear, if how would radiant exitance and radiant incidence correspond? For example, if I had a perfect mirror, I would think that I would have M(x) = E(x). However, is it the case that M(x) = - E(x), so a mirror would have M(x) = E(x) = 0? Or is this not the case; in which case would a perfect mirror be indistinguishable from a light source?


Irradiance is the power per unit area entering a surface, while radiosity is the power per unit area leaving a surface, which does not depend on direction (this is the total power in all directions).