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alpaca

V(f) is the bounded variation and measures how quickly a function changes/wiggles (bounded by 0,1 cube that we are sampling in). I guess if the function is changing quickly, then it is harder to estimate it when sampling and the error is larger. Also, Matt mentioned in lecture we can't actually compute variations for functions we use in rendering.

sff

More details on low-discrepancy sequence, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885064X12000854