Readings for Appearance Models of Computer Graphics and Vision


Copies of required readings will be handed out a week in advance.

Readings available on the web will not handed out in class. In particular, papers published in ACM and IEEE are available through the their respective Digital Libraries and are available to all Stanford students.

If you cannot attend class, copies will also be stored in the CS448 class bins in the Gates Graphics Laboratory Copy Room; if no copies of the reading are available in the bins, contact Ada Glucksman, the course secretary, in Rm 368.

One of the goals of this course is to assemble a broad reading list for people interested in appearance models. If you come across other relevant readings, please email the citation to

Overview of Apperance Models (Hanrahan)

Background material

NIST Workshop on Metrology and Modeling of Color and Appearance, March 29-20, 2000.

Utah course on BRDFs

Richard Hunt, Richard Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed., John Wiley, 1987.

Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Color

Kurt Nassau, The physics and chemistry of color.

Penelope A. Farrant, Color in Nature.

Craig Bohren, Clouds in a glass of beer.

Roy Hall, Illumination and color in computer graphics.

David Lynch and William Livingston, Color and light in nature.

G. P. Konnen, Polarized light in nature.

Mark D. Fairchild, Color appearance models.

Jacob Beck, Color surface perception.

Preliminaries (Hanrahan)


F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance, NBS Monograph 160, 1977. (pdf)

This technical report is definitely worth reading. In particular, study the derivation of the BRDF in Section I.A, and the thought experiment in Section VII Appendix B.

S. Rusinkiewicz, A new change of variables for efficient BRDF representation, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1998. (paper)

Shows how the right parameterization leads to a more compressed representation of the BRDF.


Szymon Rusinkiewicz' BRDF viewer bv.

B. Cabral, N. Max, R. Springmeyer, Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1987, Computer Graphics 21(4), pp. 273-281.

Classic early paper that proposes representing BRDF's and enviroment maps using spherical harmonics. Introduces 3D representation of isotropic BRDFs using the angle of incidence and the outgoing direction relative to the plane of incidence. Shows how to rotate spherical harmonic coefficients using the D matrix. Shows that the integral over the hemisphere of the radiance and the BRDF reduces to a dot product using spherical harmonics.

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, M. Stavridi, Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes, European Conference on Computer Vision, 1996.

Discusses the use of Zernike polynomials for modeling reflection distribution functions.

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, Phenomenological description of bidirection surface reflection, J. Optical Soc. of Am., 15(11), pp. 2903-2912, 1998.

E. P. F. Lafortune, S-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, D. P. Greenberg, Non-linear approximation of reflectance functions, SIGGRAPH 1997.

Discusses the use of polynomial lobes to model BRDFs.

J. Kautz, M. D. McCool, Interactive rendering with arbitrary BRDFs using separable approximations, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1999.

Introduces factorized representations of BRDFs.

B. Lewis, Making shaders more physically plausible, Computer Graphics Forum, 13(2), 1994, (pdf)

Subsurface Scattering I: Planar Media, Kubelka-Munk Model (Hanrahan)


C. Haase, G. Meyer, Modeling pigmented materials for realistic image synthesis, ACM TOG, 11(4), pp. 305-335, Oct. 1992. (ACM pdf)


C. Curtis, S. Anderson, J. Seims, K. Fleischer, D. Salesin, Computer-generated watercolor, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97, In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1997, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 421-430, pdf

J. Dorsey, P. Hanrahan, Modeling and rendering of metallic patinas, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 96, In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1996, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 387-396, html


A. Schuster, Radiation through a foggy atmosphere, The Astrophysics J. 21(1), pp. 1-22, Jan 1905.

P. Kubelka, New contributions to the optics of intensely light-scattering materials: Part I, JOSA, 38(5), pp. 448-457, May 1948.

P. Kubelka, New contributions to the optics of intensely light-scattering materials, Part II: Non-homogeneous layers, JOSA, 44(4), pp. 330-335, Apr 1954.

P. Kubelka, F. Munk, An article on optics of paint layers, August, 1931. ( Translated from German by Steve Westin)

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy, Springer-Verlag, 1969. (Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the Kubelka-Munk Model).

Chapter 3: Physics and psychophysics of colorant layers, In D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki, Color Business, Science and Industry, 3rd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1975.

M. Pharr, Implementatin of the Kubelka-Munk model in the RenderMan shading language (km.h).

Subsurface Scattering II: Hanrahan-Krueger Model (Hanrahan)


P. Hanrahan, W. Krueger, Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering, Computer Graphics (Proc. of SIGGRAPH 1993). (Paper Page).


Skin optics, M. J. C. V. Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternberg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering, 36(12), 1146-1154, 1989. (IEEE pdf)

S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, E. P. F. Lafortune, K. E. Torrance, Image-based BRDF measurement including human skin, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1998. (Paper page).

Subsurface Scattering III: BSSRDF

H. W. Jensen, S. Marschner, M. Levoy, P. Hanrahan, A practical model for subsurface light transport, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001, In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 2001, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 387-396, html


N. Blevins, Translucency and subsurface scattering, html.

C. Hery, Implementing a skin BSSRDF (or several), In RenderMan: Theory and Practice, Course 9, SIGGRAPH Course Notes, 2003, (local pdf).

E. Tomson, Human skin for "Finding Nemo", In RenderMan: Theory and Practice, Course 9, SIGGRAPH Course Notes, 2003, (local pdf).


J. Stam, Multiple scattering as a diffusion process, Proceedings of the 6th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, Dublin, Ireland. June 12-14 1995. P. M. Hanrahan and W. Purgathofer (eds), Springer Verlag, pp. 51-58. pdf

Derives the diffusion equation from the volume rendering equation. The appendix has a simple proof of the fact that high frequencies in the radiance distribution in a volume are attenuated by multiple scattering events.

H. W. Jensen and J. Buhler, A rapid hierarchical technique for rendering translucent materials, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2002, In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 2002, ACM SIGGRAPH, html

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, Shading in the case of translucent objects. In Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VI, B.E. Rogowitz, T.N. Pappas (eds.), SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, 312-320.

Describes appearance effects common in translucent objects.

Anisotropic reflection: hair and fibers


J. Kajiya and T. Kay, Rendering fur with three dimensional textures, Computer Graphics, 23(3) pp. 271-280, 1989, acm

Concentrate on the last section, a "Lighting model for hair."

R. Lu, J. Koenderink, A. Kappers, Specularities on surfaces with tangential hairs or grooves, IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 2-7, 1999. ( proceedings page)

S. Marschner, H. W. Jensen, M. Cammarano, S. Worley, P. Hanrahan, Light scattering from human hair fibers, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2003, In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 2003, ACM SIGGRAPH, html


D. Goldman, Fake fur rendering, In SIGGRAPH 97 Conference Proceedings, pp. 127-134., 1997, (html).

N. Magnenat-Thalman, S. Hadap, T. Y. Kim, U. Neumann, Y. Yu, S. Worley, Photorealistic hair modeling, animation and rendering, SIGGRAPH Course 34, 2003, (local pdf).

J. Kajiya, Anisotropic reflection models, Computer Graphics, 19(3), pp. 15-21, 1985.

P. Poulin and A. Fournier, A model for anisotropic reflection, Computer Graphics, 24(4), pp. 273-282, 1990. (pdf)

H. Bustard and R. Smith, Investigation into the scattering of light by human hair. Applied Optics 30:24, 1991

T.Y. Kim, Modeling, rendering and animating human hair, PhD thesis, University of Southern California, 2002, local pdf.

Chapter 5 describes Kim's scattering model, which introduces an azimuthal dependence in the scattering of light from hair.


Horse Breeds of the World, International Musuem of Horses, Pictures of anisotropic reflection from horses: Trakehner.

Hand-Drawn Holograms

Virtual Gonioreflectometry

S. Westin, J. Arvo, K. Torrance, Predicting reflectance functions from complex surfaces, Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH 1992 Proceedings), 26, pp. 255-264, 1992, (html).

Sensing for Appearance Acquisition (Lensch)


Stephen R. Marschner, Stephen H. Westin, Eric P. F. Lafortune, Kenneth E. Torrance, and Donald P. Greenberg, "Image-based BRDF Measurement Including Human Skin," In Proceedings of 10th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pp 139-152, 1999. (html).

Mark A. Robertson, Sean Borman, and Robert L. Stevenson, "Dynamic Range Improvement Through Multiple Exposures," International Conference on Image Processing, Kobe Japan, vol. 3, pp. 159-163, 1999, (pdf).


Richard Hunt, Richard Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed., John Wiley, 1987.

Measuring Bidirectional Texture Reflectance With a Kaleidoscope Jefferson Y. Han, Ken Perlin. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 22(3), pp. 741-748, 2003.

Measuring and Modeling Anisotropic Reflection Gregory J. Ward Larson. Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 92). 26(2), pp. 265-272, 1992.

Paul E. Debevec and Jitendra Malik. Recovering High Dynamic Range Radiance Maps from Photographs, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pp. 369-378, 1997, (pdf).

Michael Goesele, Hendrik P. A. Lensch, Wolfgang Heidrich and Hans-Peter Seidel. Building a Photo Studio for Measurement Purpose. In Vision, Modeling, and Visualization 2000 Proceedings, pp. 231-238, 2000, (pdf).

Slices of the 8D Reflectance Field


Acquiring the Reflectance Field of a Human Face Paul Debevec, Tim Hawkins, Chris Tchou, Haarm-Pieter Duiker, Westley Sarokin, Mark Sagar. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000. pp. 145-156, 2000. html

Reflectance and Texture of Real World Surfaces, K.J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S.K. Nayar and J.J. Koenderink, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Volume 18, No. 1, pp. 1-34, January 1999. pdf


Image-Based 3D Photography using Opacity Hulls Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, Addy Ngan, Paul Beardsley, Remo Ziegler, Leonard McMillan. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 21(3), pp. 427-437, 2002.pdf

Relighting With 4D Incident Light Fields Vincent Masselus, Pieter Peers, Philip Dutré, Yves D. Willems. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 22(3), pp. 613-620, 2003. html

Jonas Unger, Andreas Wenger, Tim Hawkins, Andrew Gardner, Paul Debevec. Capturing and Rendering with Incident Light Fields, Eurographics Symposium on Rendering: 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. pp. 141-149, June 2003. html

Hendrik P. A. Lensch, Jan Kautz, Michael Goesele, Wolfgang Heidrich and Hans-Peter Seidel. Image-Based Reconstruction of Spatial Appearance and Geometric Detail . In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 22(2), 2003, pages 234-257. pdf

Michael Goesele, Hendrik P. A. Lensch, Jochen Lang, Christian Fuchs and Hans-Peter Seidel DISCO - Acquisition of Translucent Objects In ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2004), 2004. pdf

Environment Matting and Compositing Zongker, Werner, Curless, and Salesin. SIGGRAPH 99, pages 205-214, August 1999.

Appearance and Level of Detail

Andreas G. Schilling, Towards Real-Time Photorealistic Rendering: Challenges and Solutions, in: Proceedings of the 1997 SIGGRAPH/EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Graphics Hardware, Los Angeles, California, August 3--4, 1997, pp. 7--15, 1997 (pdf - all images are found in pdf)

Model Fitting and Analysis (Lensch)


Chris Bishop Neural networks for pattern recognition New York: Oxford University Press; Clarendon Press, 1995 ISBN 0198538499, Chapter 7

Philip E. Gill, Walter Murray, Margaret H. Wright. Practical optimization London,New York : Academic Press, 1981 ISBN 0122839501

Jorge Nocedal, Stephen J. Wright. Numerical optimization New York: Springer, 1999 ISBN 0387987932

William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, Brian P. Flannery. Numerical recipes in C. Cambridge [England] : Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 0521437245

Hendrik P. A. Lensch, Jochen Lang, Asla M. Sá, Hans-Peter Seidel. Planned Sampling of Spatially Varying BRDFs. Computer Graphics Forum. 22(3), pp. 473-482, 2003. pdf

Data-driven Models and Representations (Lensch)


M. Alex O. Vasilescu, Demetri Terzopoulos. TensorTextures: multilinear image-based rendering ACM Transactions on Graphics. 23(3), pp. 336-342, 2004. pdf

Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, Matthew Brand, Leonard McMillan. A Data-Driven Reflectance Model ACM Transactions on Graphics. 22(3), pp. 759-769, 2003. pdf


Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, Matthew Brand, Leonard McMillan. Efficient Isotropic BRDF Measurement Eurographics Symposium on Rendering: 14th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. pp. 241-248, 2003. pdf

BRAND, Matthew. Charting a manifold. Proc. NIPS-15. 2003. pdf

M. A. O. Vasilescu, D. Terzopoulos. Multilinear Analysis of Image Ensembles: TensorFaces, Proc. 7th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV'02), pp 447-460, 2002. pdf

Carla D. Moravitz Martin. Tensor Decompositions Workshop Discussion Notes pdf

Perception of Materials


Adelson, E. H., On Seeing Stuff: the Perception of Materials by Humans and Machines, Proceedings of the. SPIE Vol. 4299, pp. 1-12, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VI, Bernice E. Rogowitz; Thrasyvoulos N. Pappas; Eds. (2001), (pdf).

Pellacini, F., Ferwerda, J.A., and Greenberg. D.P.. Toward a psychophysically-based light reflection model for image synthesis, Proceedings SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 55-64, (pdf).


Richard Hunt and Richard Harold, Chapter 6, Scales for Gloss and other Geometric Attributes, In The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed., 1987.

Perception of Materials under Varying Illumination

Fleming, R. W., Dror, R. O., and Adelson, E. H., Real-world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties, Journal of Vision, 3(5):347-68 (2003), (pdf).

Dror, R. O., Willsky, A. S., & Adelson, E. H., Statistical characterization of real-world illumination, Journal of Vision, 4(9): 821-837, (2004), (pdf)

Dror, R. O., Adelson, E. H., and Willsky, A. S., Estimating surface reflectance properties from images under unknown illumination, Proceedings of the SPIE 4299: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IV, San Jose, California, (2001), (pdf)