Readings for Appearance Models of Computer Graphics and Vision


Copies of required readings will be handed out a week in advance.

Readings available on the web will not handed out in class. In particular, papers published in ACM and IEEE are available through the their respective Digital Libraries and are available to all Stanford students.

If you cannot attend class, copies will also be stored in the CS448C class bins in the Gates Graphics Laboratory Copy Room; if no copies of the reading are available in the bins, contact Ada Glucksman, the course secretary, in Rm 368. We will also maintain a reading shelf containing background books and papers in Henrik Wann Jensen and Steve Marschner's office, Rm 362.

One of the goals of this course is to assemble a broad reading list for people interested in appearance models. If you come across other relevant readings, please email the citation to

Meeting 1 - Sep 27

Overview of Apperance Models (Hanrahan)

Background material

NIST Workshop on Metrology and Modeling of Color and Appearance, March 29-20, 2000.

Utah course on BRDFs

Richard Hunt, Richard Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed., John Wiley, 1987.

Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Color

Kurt Nassau, The physics and chemistry of color.

Penelope A. Farrant, Color in Nature.

Craig Bohren, Clouds in a glass of beer.

Roy Hall, Illumination and Color in Computer Graphics.

David Lynch and William Livingston, Color and Light in Nature.

The BRDF (Marschner and Rusinkiewicz)


J. Kautz, M. D. McCool, Interactive rendering with arbitrary BRDFs using separable approximations, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1999.

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, M. Stavridi, Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes, European Conference on Computer Vision, 1996.

E. P. F. Lafortune, S-C. Foo, K. E. Torrance, D. P. Greenberg, Non-linear approximation of reflectance functions, SIGGRAPH 1997.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance, NBS Monograph 160, 1977.

S. Rusinkiewicz, A new change of variables for efficient BRDF representation, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1998.

Meeting 2 - Oct 4

Measurement I (Marschner and Rusinkiewicz)


G. J. Ward, Measuring and Modeling Anisotropic Reflectance, SIGGRAPH 1992.
(ACM PDF file)
(author's page)

S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, E. P. F. Lafortune, K. E. Torrance, Image-based bidirectional reflectance distribution measurement, Applied Optics 39:16, 2000.
(Applied Optics Online)


S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, E. P. F. Lafortune, K. E. Torrance, Image-based BRDF measurement including human skin, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1998.

D. R. White, P. Saunders, S. J. Bonsey, J. van de Ven, H. Edgar, Reflectometer for measuring the bidirectional reflectance of rough surfaces, Applied Optics 37:16, 1998.

T. A. Leonard, P. Rudolph, BRDF round-robin test of ASTM E1392, Optical Scattering (SPIE vol 1995), 1993.

E. A. Early, et al., Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program, J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 17:8, 2000.

R. Lu, J. J. Koenderink, A. M. L. Kappers, Optical properties (bidirectional reflectance distribution functions) of velvet, Applied Optics 37:15, 1998.
(Applied Optics Online)

M. Stavridi, B. van Ginneken, J. J. Koenderink, Surface bidirectional reflection distribution function and the texture of bricks and tiles, Applied Optics 36:16, 1997.

F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, D. P. Greenberg, Toward a psychophysically-based reflection model for computer graphics, SIGGRAPH 2000.
(ACM PDF file)

T. F. Schiff, M. W. Knighton, D. J. Wilson, F. M. Cady, J. C. Stover, J. J. Butler, Design review of a high accuracy UV to near IR scatteromter, Optical Scattering (SPIE vol 1995), 1993.
(A seemingly related commercial device)

Waves and Water (Purcell)


Chapter 3: "Water and light" page 65-101 from David Lynch and William Livingston "Color and Light in Nature."


Chapter 7, "Dew Drops on a Bathroom Mirror," pp. 44-52, In Craig Bohren, Clouds in a Glass of Beer.

Chapter 20, "Colors of the Sea," pp. 155-170, In Craig Bohren, Clouds in a Glass of Beer.

S. Premoze, M. Ashikhmin, Rendering natural waters, Proceedings of Pacific Graphics 2000, October 2000. Paper Page

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics, Elsevier, 1976.

C. Mobley, Light and Water Academic Press, 1994.

Meeting 3 - Oct 11

Measurement II (Marschner and Rusinkiewicz)


K. J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. K. Nayar, J. J. Koenderink, Reflectance and texture of real-world surfaces, ACM TOG 18:1, 1999.
(Author's .ps.gz file)
(ACM page)

D. N. Wood, D. I. Azuma, K. Aldinger, B. Curless, T. Duchamp, D. H. Salesin, W. Stuetzle, Surface lisht fields for 3D photography, SIGGRAPH 2000.
(Author's PDF file)
(ACM PDF file)


Y. Sato, M. D. Wheeler, K. Ikeuchi, Object shape and reflectance modeling from observation, SIGGRAPH 1997.
(ACM PDF file)

M. Levoy, P. Hanrahan, Light field rendering, SIGGRAPH 1996.
(ACM PDF file)

S. J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, M. F. Cohen, The lumigraph, SIGGRAPH 1996.
(ACM PDF file)

P. Debevec, T. Hawkins, C. Tchou, H-P. Duiker, W. Sarokin, M. Sagar, Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face, SIGGRAPH 2000.
(Author's PDF file)

D. E. Zongker, D. M. Werner, B. Curless, D. H. Salesin, Environment matting and compositing, SIGGRAPH 1999.
(ACM PDF file)
(Project web page)

Y-Y. Chuang, D. E. Zongker, J. Hindorff, B. Curless, D. H. Salesin, R. Szeliski, Environment matting extensions: towards higher accuracy and real-time capture, SIGGRAPH 2000.
(ACM PDF file)

S. R. Marschner, B. K. Guenter, S. Raghupathy, Modeling and rendering for realistic facial animation, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 2000.
(Author's page)

S. Rusinkiewicz, Projecting color onto Michelangelo's Statues.

H. Rushmeier, F. Bernardini, Computing consistent normals and colors from photometric data, 3DIM 1999.
(IEEE PDF file)

Virtual Gonioreflectometry


S. H. Westin, J. R. Arvo, K. E. Torrance, Predicting Reflectance Functions from Complex Surfaces, SIGGRAPH 1992.

J. S. Gondek, G. W. Meyer, J. G. Newman, Wavelength dependent reflectance functions, SIGGRAPH 1994.

Meeting 4 - Oct 18

Surface Reflection I: Random Rough Surfaces, Microfacet Models (Hanrahan)


On the reflection of light by mat or rough surfaces, Section 3, In P. Bouguer, Optical Treatise on The Gradation of Light, Translated by W. Middleton, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1961.

Lord Rayleigh, Polish, Proc. Royal Society, pp. 563-570, 1901.

K. Torrance and E. Sparrow, Theory for the off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces, J. of the Optical Society of America, Vol 57, No 9, pp. 1105-1144.


P. Beckmann and A. Spizzichino, The scattering of electromagnetic waves from rough surfaces, MacMillan, 1963.

B. van Ginneken, M. Stavridi, J. Koenderink, Diffuse and specular reflection from rough surfaces, Applied Optics, Vol 37, No 1, pp. 130-139, 1998.

Anisotropic reflection: Grooves and cylinders, hair and fibers


R. Lu, J. Koenderink, A. Kappers, Specularities on surfaces with tangential hairs or grooves, IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 2-7, 1999. (pdf)


J. Kajiya, Anisotropic reflection models, Computer Graphics, 19(3), pp. 15-21, 1985.

J. Kajiya and T. Kay, Rendering fur with three dimensional textures, Computer Graphics, 23(3) pp. 271-280, 1989.

P. Poulin and A. Fournier, A model for anisotropic reflection, Computer Graphics, 24(4), pp. 273-282, 1990. (pdf)

H. Bustard and R. Smith, Investigation into the scattering of light by human hair. Applied Optics 30:24, 1991


MaryAnn Simmons Collection of Horse Pictures

Hand-Drawn Holograms

Meeting 5 - Oct 25

Surface Reflection II: Self-shadowing, Interreflection (Hanrahan)


J. J. Koenderink, A. J. Van Doorn, K. J. Dana, S. K. Nayar, Bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of thoroughly pitted surfaces, IJCV, April 1999.


P. Beckmann, Shadowing of random rough surfaces, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol AP-13, pp. 384-388, 1965.

B. Smith, Geometrical shadowing of a random rough surface, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol AP-15, No 5, pp. 668-671, 1967.

M. Ashikmin, S. Premoze, P. Shirley, A microfacet-based BRDF generator, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000 (pdf).



Cloth modeling and animation, D. House and D. Breen, AK Peters, 2000. Read Chapters Chapter 1, Woven Fabric, N. Znamierowski, Chapter 10, From Structure to Reflectance, A. Fournier, P. Lalonde, and Chapter 11, A Volumetric Appearance Model, M. Meissner, B. Eberhardt, W. Strasser,

Shading Primitives, J. Haddon.


Yasuda, Takami, Shigeki Yokoi, Jun-ichiro Toriwaki, and Katsuhiro Inagaki. "A Shading Model for Cloth Objects". IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (November 1992), pp. 15-24. ( IEEE CGA pdf )

James Stewart, Computing visibility from folded surfaces, Computer and Graphics, 23(5), pp. 693-702, 1999. ( Paper Page )

Evelyn Wang, Woven cloth simulation, CMSC 635 Project, May 2000.

Meeting 6 - Nov 1

Participating Media I: The volume rendering equation, phase functions, single scattering (Jensen)


S. Chandrasekhar, "Radiative Transfer", page 1-11, 1960.

Chapter 2 "Clear Air" from David Lynch and William Livingston: "Color and Light in Nature".


L.G.Henyey and J.L.Greenstein, "Diffuse Radiation in the Galaxy", 1941

Craig Bohren, "Clouds in a glass of beer", chapter 16 "On a clear day you can't see forever", page 120-127, and chapter 18, "Physics on a manure heap, more about black clouds", page 136-143

Clouds, smoke


T. Nishita, Y.Dobashi, E.Nakamae, "Display of Clouds Taking into Account Multiple Anisotropic Scattering and Sky Light," Proc. of SIGGRAPH'96, 1996-8, pp.379-386, Author webpage


Adam Phelps Collection of Cloud Pictures

Meeting 7 - Nov 8

Participating Media II: Multiple scattering (Jensen)


Craig Bohren: "Multiple scattering of light and some of its observable consequences", page 524-533, Am.J.Phys. 55, 1987

Henrik Wann Jensen and Per H. Christensen, Efficient Simulation of Light Transport in Scenes with Participating Media using Photon Maps, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH'98, pages 311-320, July 1998. (ACM web-page)


Craig Bohren, "Clouds in a glass of beer", chapter 14 "Multiple scattering at the breakfast table", page 104-112, and chapter 15, "Multiple scattering at the beach", page 113-119

Halos, crystals, rainbows; snow, ice


Chapter 5 "Ice and halos" from David Lynch and William Livingston: "Color and Light in Nature".

J. Koenderink and W. Richards: "Why is snow so bright?". J.Opt.Soc.Am. 9:5, 1992


Craig Bohren: "Colors of snow, frozen waterfalls, and icebergs". J.Opt.Soc.Am. 73:12, 1983

Craig Bohren and Bruce Barkstrom: "Theory of the Optical Properties of Snow". J. Geophysical Research 79:30, 1974

Meeting 8 - Nov 15

Subsurface Scattering I: Planar Media, Kubelka-Munk Model (Hanrahan)


C. Haase, G. Meyer, Modeling pigmented materials for realistic image synthesis, ACM TOG, 11(4), pp. 305-335, Oct. 1992. (ACM pdf)


A. Schuster, Radiation through a foggy atmosphere, The Astrophysics J. 21(1), pp. 1-22, Jan 1905.

P. Kubelka, New contributions to the optics of intensely light-scattering materials: Part I, JOSA, 38(5), pp. 448-457, May 1948.

P. Kubelka, New contributions to the optics of intensely light-scattering materials, Part II: Non-homogeneous layers, JOSA, 44(4), pp. 330-335, Apr 1954.

P. Kubelka, F. Munk, An article on optics of paint layers, August, 1931. ( Translated from German by Steve Westin)

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy, Springer-Verlag, 1969. (Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the Kubelka-Munk Model).

Chapter 3: Physics and psychophysics of colorant layers, In D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki, Color Business, Science and Industry, 3rd edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1975.



G. Baranoski, J. Rokne, P. Shirley, Simulation of Light Interaction with Plants, Chapter 4 in Tutorial Notes.

Modeling leaf optical properties , LED Laboratory, Paris.


G. Baranoski, J. Rokne, A simplified model for light interaction with plant tissue, GraphiCon '98, pp. 154-161, 1998 (ps.gz).

LED Laboratory, Paris. 736 references on leaf and flower optical properties.


Lena Vileshina's Collection of Plant Pictures

Meeting 9 - Nov 29

Subsurface Scattering II: Hanrahan-Krueger Model (Hanrahan)


P. Hanrahan, W. Krueger, Reflection from layered surfaces due to subsurface scattering, Computer Graphics (Proc. of SIGGRAPH 1993). (Paper Page).



Skin optics, M. J. C. V. Gemert, S. L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternberg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering, 36(12), 1146-1154, 1989. (IEEE pdf)

P. Debevec, T. Hawkins, C. Tchou, H-P. Duiker, W. Sarokin, M. Sagar, Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face, SIGGRAPH 2000.
(Author's PDF file)

S. R. Marschner, S. H. Westin, E. P. F. Lafortune, K. E. Torrance, Image-based BRDF measurement including human skin, Eurographics Rendering Workshop, 1998. (Paper page).