Improving the Accuracy of Gaze Input for Interaction

Manu Kumar

GazeWorks, Inc.

Jeff Klingner

Stanford University

Rohan Puranik

Stanford University

Terry Winograd

Stanford University

Andreas Paepcke

Stanford University

Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications


Using gaze information as a form of input poses challenges based on the nature of eye movements and how we humans use our eyes in conjunction with other motor actions. In this paper, we present three techniques for improving the use of gaze as a form of input. We first present a saccade detection and smoothing algorithm that works on real-time streaming gaze information. We then present a study which explores some of the timing issues of using gaze in conjunction with a trigger (key press or other motor action) and propose a solution for resolving these issues. Finally, we present the concept of Focus Points, which makes it easier for users to focus their gaze when using gaze-based interaction techniques. Though these techniques were developed for improving the performance of gaze-based pointing, their use is applicable in general to using gaze as a practical form of input.

Figure 1: Results of our real-time saccade detection and smoothing algorithm. Note that the one-measurement look-ahead prevents outliers in the raw gaze data from being mistaken for saccades, but introduces a 20-ms latency on saccade thresholds.

Figure 5: Magnified view for gaze-based pointing technique with and without focus points. Using focus points provides a visual anchor for subjects to focus their gaze on, making it easier for them to click in the text box.


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  author = {Kumar, Manu and Klingner, Jeff and Puranik, Rohan and Winograd, Terry and Paepcke, Andreas},
  title = {Improving the accuracy of gaze input for interaction},
  booktitle = {ETRA '08: Proceedings of the 2008 symposium on Eye tracking research & applications},
  year = {2008},
  isbn = {978-1-59593-982-1},
  pages = {65--68},
  location = {Savannah, Georgia},
  doi = {10.1145/1344471.1344488},
  publisher = {ACM},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},