Monte Carlo Evaluation of Non-Linear Scattering Equations
for Subsurface Reflection

Matt Pharr and Pat Hanrahan, Stanford University
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000


We describe a new mathematical framework for solving a wide variety of
rendering problems based on a non-linear integral scattering equation.
This framework treats the scattering functions of complex aggregate objects
as first-class rendering primitives; these scattering functions accurately
account for all scattering events inside them. We also describe
new techniques for computing scattering functions from the composition of
scattering objects. We demonstrate that solution techniques based on this
new approach can be more efficient than previous techniques based on
radiance transport and the equation of transfer and we apply these
techniques to a number of problems in rendering scattering from complex

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