Annotated bibliography organized by topic.


There is one required text for the course:

In addition, the following books may be useful.

The Goals of Rendering


D. Greenberg, A framework for realistic image synthesis, CACM 42(8), pp. 44-53, Aug. 1999. (pdf)


D. Greenberg, K. Torrance, P. Shirley, J. Arvo, J. A. Ferwerda, S. pattanaik, E. P. F. Lafortune, B. Walter, S. Foo, B. Trimbone, A framework for realistic rendering, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 97 (Los Angelos, CA, August 3-9, 1997). In Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1997, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 477-494. (pdf)

Ray Tracing I: Basic Algorithms


A. Appel, Some techniques for the machine rendering of solids, Proc. of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, pp. 37-45, 1968.

R. A. Goldstein, R. Nagel, 3-D visual simulation, Simulation, 16(1), pp. 25-31, Jan. 1971.

T. Whitted, A improved illumination model for shaded display, CACM, 23(6), pp. 343-349, June 1980, (acm).


E. Haines, Essential ray tracing algorithms, In Glassner, An Introduction to Ray Tracing, pp. 33-78.

P. Hanrahan, A survey of ray-surface intersection algorithms, In Glassner, An Introduction to Ray Tracing, pp. 79-120.

T. Moller, B. Trumbore, Fast, minimum storage ray-triangle intersection, Journal of Graphics Tools, 2(1), pp. 21-28, 1997. (pdf).

P. Hanrahan, Ray-triangle and ray-quadrilateral intersection in homogeneous coordinates, unpublished manuscript. (pdf)

Ray Tracing II: Acceleration Techniques


J. Arvo, D. Kirk, A survey of ray tracing acceleration structures, In Glassner, An Introduction to Ray Tracing, pp. 201-262.

J. Arvo, Ray tracing with meta-hierarchies, In <em>SIGGRAPH 90 Advanced Topics in Ray Tracing Course Notes</em>, 1990. (ps)

The [ Best Efficiency Scheme Homepage].

I. Wald, V. Havran, On building fast kd-trees for ray tracing, and on doing that in O(N log N), SCI Technical Report 2006-009, (pdf)

A. Reshetov, A. Soupikov, J. Hurley, Multi-level ray tracing algorithm, ACM Transactions on Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2005) 24(3), pp. 1176-1185, 2005 (acm)

Introduction to real-time ray tracing, SIGGRAPH 2005 Course Number 28, (course notes)



P. Hanrahan, Rendering concepts, In Cohen and Wallace, Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis, pp. 13-40.


R. Barzel, Lighting controls for computer cinematography, Journal of Graphics Tools, 2(1), pp. 1-20, 1997. (jgt html, pdf)

J. Palmer, [ Radiometry and Photometry FAQ]


R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry, Artech House, Norword, MA, 1994.

P. Bouguer, Optical Treatise on The Gradation of Light, Translated with an introduction and notes by W. Middleton, University of Toronto Press, 1961.

J. H. Lambert, Photometry, Translated with an introductory monograph and notes by D. DiLaura, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2001.

The Light Field

No Additional Readings

Monte Carlo Integration I


Chapter 2, Fundamentals of Monte Carlo Integration, State of the Art in Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Realistic Synthesis, SIGGRAPH Course 29, 2001. (pdf)

Chapter 3, Direct Lighting via Monte Carlo Integration, State of the Art in Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Realistic Synthesis, SIGGRAPH Course 29, 2001.


E. Veach, Introduction to Monte Carlo Integration, CS448 Lecture 6 Notes, 1997. (ps)

E. Veach, Sampling Random Variables, CS448 Lecture 7 Notes, 1997. (ps)

P. Shirley, Realistic ray tracing, Chapter 11: Monte Carlo Integration, Chapter 12 Choosing sample points, and Chapter 15 Soft Shadows.

Cameras and Film


C. Kolb, D. Mitchell, P. Hanrahan, A realistic camera model for computer graphics, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 95 (Los Angelos, CA, August 6-11, 1995), In Computer Graphics, Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1995, ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 317-324. (paper).


B. London and J. Upton, Photography, Fifth Edition, HarperCollins College Publishers, 1994.

R. Kingslake, Optics in Photography, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1992.

Monte Carlo Integration II


Cook, Carpenter, Porter, Distributed ray tracing, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1984, (acm)


D. Mitchell, Spectrally optimal sampling for distribution ray tracing, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 91, Computer Graphics 25(4), pp. 157-164, 1991. (acm)

M. Lee, R. Redner, S. Uselton, Statistically optimized sampling for distributed ray tracing, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 85, Computer Graphics 19(3), pp. 61-68, 1985, (acm)

Chapter 4, Stratified Sampling on 2-manifolds, State of the Art in Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for Realistic Synthesis, SIGGRAPH Course 29, 2001. (pdf)

E. Veach, Variance Reduction I, CS448 Lecture 8 Notes, 1997. (ps)

E. Veach, Variance Reduction II, CS448 Lecture 9 Notes, 1997. (ps)

E. Veach, Quasi-Monte Carlo, CS448 Lecture 10 Notes, 1997. (ps)

Sampling and Reconstruction


R. Cook, Stochastic sampling in computer graphics, ACM Transactions on Computer Graphics, 5(1), pp. 51-72, Jan 1986, (acm)

D. Mitchell, Generating antialiased images at low sampling densities, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 87, Computer Graphics 21(3), pp. 65-72, 1987, (acm)

D. Mitchell, A. Netravali, Reconstruction filters for computer graphics, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 88, Computer Graphics 22(4), pp. 221-228, 1988, (acm)


P. Hanrahan, Notes on signal processing for computer graphics, (unpublished manuscript), (pdf)

M. Dippe, E. Wold, Antialiasing through stochastic sampling, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 85, Computer Graphics 19(3), pp. 69-78, 1985. (acm)

T. Duff, Polygon scan conversion by exact convolution, Proceedings International Conference on Raster Imaging and Digital Typography, pp. 151-168, Cambridge University Press, Oct 1989.

Reflection Models I: BRDFs


P. Hanrahan, Rendering concepts, In Cohen and Wallace, Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis, pp. 13-40.

Reflection Models II: Glossy


J. Blinn, Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures, SIGGRAPH 77, pp. 192-198.


K. Torrance and E. Sparrow, Theory for the off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces, J. of the Optical Society of America, Vol 57, No 9, pp. 1105-1144. (pdf)

R. Cook and K. Torrance, A reflectance model for computer graphics, SIGGRAPH 81, pp. 307-316, 1981. (acm)


No additional readings

The Rendering Equation

No additional readings

Path Tracing

P. Hanrahan, Solving the rendering equation, SIGGRAPH 2001 Course 29: Monte Carlo Ray Tracing. (pdf)

M. Fajardo, Monte Carlo ray tracing in action, SIGGRAPH 2001 Course 29: Monte Carlo Ray Tracing. (pdf)

R. Cook, L. Carpenter, T. Porter, Distributed ray tracing. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 84, Computer Graphics, 1984. ([ 0&key2=6122820201&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=2476665&CFTOKEN=16459034 acm])


J. Arvo, Backward ray tracing, In Developments in Ray Tracing, SIGGRAPH `86 Course Notes, August 1986. (ps)

E. LaFortune, Y. Willems, Bi-directional path tracing, Proceedings of Compugraphics '93, Alvor, Portugal (December '93), pp. 145-153. (ps.gz)

E. Veach, L. Guibas, Bidirectional estimators for light transport, Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1994 Proceedings (Darmstadt, Germany, June 1994), pp. 147-162. (url)

Irradiance Caching and Photons Maps

G. Ward, F. Rubinstein and R. Clear, A ray tracing solution for diffuse interreflection, SIGGRAPH '88, pp. 85-92, 1988. (Paper Page)

H. W. Jensen, Global illumination using photon maps, In Rendering Techniques '96, pp. 21-30, 1996. (Paper Page)


Henrik Wann Jensen, Realistic Image Synthesis Using Photon Mapping A. K. Peters, 2001.

H. Rushmeier and G. Ward, Energy preserving non-linear filters, SIGGRAPH '94, pp. 131-138, 1994. (Paper Page)

Participating Media and Volume Rendering

M. Levoy, Display of surfaces from volume data, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 3, May, 1988, pp. 29-37. (ieee)

N. Max, Optical models for direct volume rendering, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 1(2), June 1995, pp. 97 - 108. (pdf)


J. Kajiya and B. Von Herzen, Ray tracing volume densities, Computer Graphics, 18(3), July 1984, pp. 165-174. (acm)

R. Drebin, L. Carpenter, P. Hanrahan, Volume rendering, Computer Graphics, 18(3), July 1984, pp. 65-74. (acm)

K. Perlin, E. Hoffert, Hypertexture, Computer Graphics (Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Conference), 23(3), pp. 253-262, (acm)

Reflection Models III: Anisotropic and Translucent Materials

J. Kajiya and T. Kay, Rendering fur with three dimensional textures, Computer Graphics, 23(3) pp. 271-280, 1989. (acm)

S. Marschner, H. W. Jensen, M. Cammarano, S. Worley, P. Hanrahan, Light scattering from human hair fibers, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2003, (pdf)

H. W. Jensen, S. R. Marschner, M. Levoy, P. Hanrahan, A practical model for subsurface light transport, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001, (pdf)


R. Lu, J. Koenderink, A. Kappers, Specularities on surfaces with tangential hairs or grooves, IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 2-7, 1999. (pdf)

Bibliography (last edited 2006-05-30 15:52:29 by PatHanrahan)